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Title: 反美主義:文明衝突亦或權力政治?
Anti-Americanism: The Clash of Civilizations of Power Politics?
Authors: 楊吉林
Chilin Yang
Keywords: 文化衝突
全球化
美國霸權
權力政治
clash of civilizations
globalization
American hegemony
power politics
Date: 2005-05
Issue Date: 2008-11-20 09:57:06 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 全球化是當前影響世界各國社會發展與國際政治的重要因素,全球化也往往被許多國家保守派人士視為等同於美國化,遂導致反美主義蔓延。杭廷頓在分析全球國際局勢變化時指出,後冷戰時期的國際衝突將是以文化為導向;文化相近的國家容易整合利益並形成結盟,而文化差異較大的國家之間發生衝突的機會也大。九一一事件發生後,許多人士認為杭廷頓的理論正確地預測了國際局勢的發展方向,也將該事件歸因於文化衝突,更認為是回教基本教義派對於美國勢力與文化的反撲。若延續此一思維,世界各地反美主義的興起乃是文化衝突的必然結果。然而仔細分析當前反美主義的發展與形成,吾人不難發現強調以軍事力量為後盾的美國強勢外交政策才是問題的癥結所在,而蘇聯瓦解後的後冷戰單極國際體系也間接地促成了反美主義的蔓延。反美主義在世界各國有不同的形成背景、意涵與表達方式,若以文化衝突的單一解釋是難以說明問題的本質,而現實主義所強調的權力政治仍應是反美主義的癥結所在。
Currently globalization has been considered as an influencial factor in the social development of most countries around the world, and conservatives in those societies tend to view it as an undesirable trend of cultural Americanization. As a result, anti-Americanism has emerged or intensified throughout the world. Samuel Huntington, in analyzing the future development of world politics in early 1990s, pointed out that global conflicts had been dominated by cultural identity after the Cold War: in other words, cultural identity issue can be taken as an indicator in predicting future conflicts among nations. In the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack, many Americans believe that Huntington x as right and the terrorist attack can be interpreted as a backlash from the Muslim fundamentalist forces against the spread of American culture. Following this argument, anti-Americanism is, obviously, a foregone conclusion of the clash of civilizations. Nevertheless, if we exam thoroughly the issues at hand, we will realize that instead of cultural conflicts it is the American dominant foreign policy and practices that should be blamed as the main cause of the anti-Americanism spread. Moreover, the monolithic structure of the world polity emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union also contributed to the diffusion of anti-Americanism. The fomentation, significance, and expressions of anti-Americanism vary from region to region, country to country, and it would be incorrect to interpret the phenomenon in terms of clash of civilizations alone. The analysis of this paper indicates that the Realist perspective of power politics still better explains the issue of anti-Americanism in an era of globalization.
Relation: 語文與國際研究
第二期
Appears in Collections:[國際事務系] 期刊論文

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